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Hydromorphone

COMMON & BRAND NAMES

Dilaudid, Hydrostat, Palladone

EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION

Analgesic, Antitussive

CHEMICAL NAME

4,5-epoxy-3-hydroxy-17-methylmorphinan-6-one

DESCRIPTION

Hydromorphone is an opiate, narcotic analgesic, used primarily in the treatment of moderate to severe pain. It is a semi-synthetic derivative of morphine.

EFFECTS

The major hazards of DILAUDID ORAL LIQUID and DILAUDID 8 mg TABLETS include respiratory depression and apnea. To a lesser degree, circulatory depression, respiratory arrest, shock and cardiac arrest have occurred. The most frequently observed adverse effects are light-headedness, dizziness, sedation, nausea, vomiting, sweating, flushing, dysphoria, euphoria, dry mouth, and pruritus. These effects seem to be more prominent in ambulatory patients and in those not experiencing severe pain.
Less Frequently Observed Adverse Reactions:

General and CNS: Weakness, headache, agitation, tremor, uncoordinated muscle movements, alterations of mood (nervousness, apprehension, depression, floating feelings, dreams), muscle rigidity, paresthesia, muscle tremor, blurred vision, nystagmus, diplopia and miosis, transient hallucinations and disorientation, visual disturbances, insomnia, increased intracranial pressure

Cardiovascular: Flushing of the face, chills, tachycardia, bradycardia, palpitation, faintness, syncope, hypotension, hypertension.

Respiratory: Bronchospasm and laryngospasm

Gastrointestinal: Constipation, biliary tract spasm, ileus, anorexia, diarrhea, cramps, taste alteration

Genitourinary: Urinary retention or hesitancy, antidiuretic effects

Dermatologic: Urticaria, other skin rashes, diaphoresis.

Dilaudid 8 mg pills

Dilaudid 8 mg pills

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Methadone

COMMON & BRAND NAMES

Methadose, Dolophine, Juice

EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION

Opioid, Analgesic

CHEMICAL NAME

6-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenyl-3-heptanone

DESCRIPTION

Methadone is a opioid (a synthetic opiate) that is most commonly used as a maintenance treatment for heroin and opiate addiction. Methadone is usually available as a liquid – linctus or methadone mixture – which should be swallowed. Tablets and injectable ampoules are sometimes prescribed, and like many other medicines some of these prescribed drugs are diverted and become available illegally. Methadone is not an innocent substance; ‘one’s methadone maintenance dose is another’s poison’. People taking methadone should not drive a car or operate machinery.

EFFECTS

Some of these methadone effects are easily mistaken as withdrawal symptoms or as other medical conditions.  A regular user of opiates develops a certain tolerance. Therefore, it is possible that a tolerant person can function normally with dosages which can be fatal to a non-tolerant person. Methadone magnifies the effects of alcohol and other central nervous system depressants, such as antihistamines, cold medicines, sedatives, tranquilizers, other prescription and over-the-counter (OTC) pain medications, barbiturates, seizure medications, muscle relaxants, and certain anesthetics including some dental anesthetics. Alcohol and other central nervous system depressants should not be taken or consumed while methadone is being taken.  Intentional or accidental overdose of methadone can lead to unconsciousness, coma, or death.

Methadone Effects

  • Abdominal pain (cramps) may occur.
  • Sweating is often increased, especially at night.
  • Loss of appetite, nausea and vomiting may occur.
  • Skin rashes and itching are experienced by some people.
  • Sedation (for example, drowsiness, especially soon after a dose).
  • Fluid retention causing swelling or ‘puffiness’ of the hands or feet.
  • Constipation is quite common. Drink plenty of water and eat more fruit, vegetables, wholemeal and bran products.
  • Lowered sex drive is experienced with the use of any opioid, including methadone and heroin. However, this may settle down.
  • Aching muscles and joints may be experienced, even when the dose of methadone is adequate. Some people report rheumatism-type aches and pains at various times.
  • Tooth decay Methadone, like all opioids, reduces production of saliva. Saliva contains antibacterial agents which help prevent deterioration of teeth and gums. Poor or irregular diet and inadequate dental care also contribute to tooth decay. Regular brushing and chewing sugar-free gum can prevent tooth decay.
  • Changes to periods (menstruation) Many women have irregular periods when they use heroin or other opiates. For some women, their menstrual cycle returns to normal during methadone treatment, whereas others continue to have irregular periods while on methadone. When starting a methadone program, it is important to think about contraception, as you may start having periods again, and be at risk of getting pregnant.

Other Potential Complications Due to Methadone’s Effects Include:

  • tears
  • tremors
  • diarrhea
  • yawning
  • sedation
  • sweating
  • dizziness
  • tooth decay
  • constipation
  • goose bumps
  • fluid retention
  • pinpoint pupils
  • loss of appetite
  • irregular periods
  • nausea/vomiting
  • difficulty sleeping
  • lowered sex drive
  • heart palpitations
  • shallow breathing
  • abdominal cramps
  • back and joint aches
  • cravings for the drug
  • poor blood circulation
  • feeling physically weak
  • skin rashes and itching
  • drowsiness/nodding off
  • aching muscles and joints
  • muscle spasm and jerking
  • problems with sexual functioning
  • loss of appetite, nausea/vomiting
  • high temperature but feeling cold
  • below normal drop in body temperature
  • slow blood pulse, lowered blood pressure
  • irritability/aggression/feelings of uneasiness
  • sweating (clients should drink at least two liters of water per day to avoid dehydration)

What are the symptoms of methadone overdose?

Body as a whole

  • Muscle spasticity

Respiratory

  • Difficulty breathing
  • Slow, shallow and labored breathing
  • Stopped breathing (sometimes fatal within 2-4 hours)

Eyes, ears, nose, and throat

  • Pinpoint pupils
  • Bluish skin
  • Bluish fingernails and lips

Gastrointestinal

  • Spasms of the stomach and/or intestinal tract
  • Constipation

Heart and blood vessels

  • Weak pulse
  • Low blood pressure

Nervous system

  • Drowsiness
  • Disorientation
  • Coma

Links: Common Types of Addiction Treatment

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Psilocybin

BOTANICAL CLASSIFICATION

Family: Strophariaceae
Genus: Psilocybe
Species: cubensis, cyanescens, semilanceata, to many to name
Genus: Panaeolus
Species: campanulatus, subbalteatus, to many to name

COMMON NAMES

Shrooms, Magic Mushrooms, Sacred Mushrooms, teonanácatl, mushies, shrooms, boomers, psilocybes, cubes, liberty caps

EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION

Psychedelic

DESCRIPTION

There are more than 180 species of mushrooms which contain the psychedelics psilocybin or psilocin. They have a long history of use in Mexico and are currently one of the most popular and commonly available natural psychedelics. The effects of their ingestion resemble a shorter acting LSD trip, producing significant physical, visual, and perceptual changes. Nearly all of the psilocybin containing mushrooms are small brown or tan mushrooms easily mistakable for any number of non-psychoactive, inedible, or poisonous mushrooms in the wild. This makes them somewhat difficult, and potentially hazardous, to identify. The primary distinguishable feature of most psilocybin containing mushrooms is that they bruise blue when handled. Psilocybin containing mushrooms grow wild across the United States and in many countries around the world. There are also several species which are easily cultivated with a fairly simple and inexpensive setup. Most recreationally used mushrooms are cultivated rather than picked wild.

HISTORY

Psilocybe mushrooms have been used for thousands of years by Native Americans in Central and South America. The first European record of their use showed up in the 16th century writings of a Spanish priest who wrote about the Aztec’s use of both mushrooms and peyote. In 1957, Wasson became the first in modern times to document and publish a description of his own experience (Life Magazine). The active ingredient of the mushrooms, psilocybin, was soon isolated and by the mid 60’s mushrooms were being both studied and used recreationally. In 1968 possession of psilocybin mushrooms was made illegal in the United States

EFFECTS

  • pupil dilation
  • mood lift, euphoria
  • sensation of insight
  • dizziness, confusion
  • sleepiness, lethargy
  • memories come to life
  • mild to severe anxiety
  • intense feelings of fear
  • time perception alteration
  • intense feelings of wonder
  • giggling, laughter, giddiness
  • life changing spiritual experience
  • feeling more emotionally sensitive
  • lights seem brighter, sensitivity to light
  • increased detection of motion in peripheral vision
  • starring and rainbow patterns around pinpoint lights
  • closed-eye visuals (common at medium or stronger dose)
  • time seems to pass more slowly (minutes seem to take hours)
  • general change in consciousness (as with many psychoactives)
  • paradoxical feeling of a normalcy and deep alteration of psyche
  • creative, philosophical or deep thinking : ideas flow more easily
  • can precipitate or exacerbate latent or existing mental disorders
  • lightheadedness or fainting (in cases of lowered blood pressure)
  • boring tasks or entertainment can become more interesting or funny
  • sensation of energy or buzzing in the nevous system/peripheral limbs
  • may interrupt cluster sequences in those suffering from cluster headaches
  • nausea, gas, gastrointestinal discomfort, especially when dry mushrooms eaten raw
  • headache, usually as effects wear off, sometimes beginning the next day, lasting for up to 24 hours
  • working memory disruption (reduced ability to do tasks requiring current remembering and attention)

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Cheese Heroin

A cheap, but highly addictive drug known as “cheese heroin” has killed many teenagers in the Dallas, Texas area over the past couple of years. The number of deaths that cheese was known to be the cause of sits at 40, but it is hard for coroners to tell exactly what specific drug is the cause of death, so the lives taken by “cheese heroin” could be higher than 40.

Cheese Heroin is a blend of “black-tar heroin” (which is about 30% pure heroin) and is combined with over-the-counter medications that contain the antihistamine diphenhydramine (found in Tylenol PM). Cheese samples obtained in north Dallas, Texas contained between 2% and 8% heroin. The sedative effects of the heroin and the nighttime sleep aid makes quite a deadly brew.

Monty Moncibais is a Dallas, Texas detective that had this to say about cheese heroin, “A double whammy – you’re getting two downers at once.”  “If you take the body and you start slowing everything down, everything inside your body, eventually you’re going to slow down the heart until it stops and, when it stops, you’re dead.”

The DEA is concerned about this drug trend spreading to other cites, so they are working hard to educate everyone about cheese heroin. They are also trying to identify the traffickers of this new brew.

My Opinion

I find it very alarming to know that middle schoolers are using this drug and that they think its “kewl”. This is very scary; it tells me that most of these kids are doomed to become drug addicts. It also shows that our education on the dangers of drugs is lackluster and Ineffective. Now I’m not slamming anyone who tries to educate our youth about the dangers of drugs, but obviously what we are currently doing just isn’t cutting it. I believe that the only way for drug education to be effective is to truthfully convey the danger, like I mean “True Bluntness”. We need to almost scare them with the truth of what drugs do and what they lead to.

Now I’m not saying take some 5th graders and scare the hell out of them with a bunch of facts. No, no. We should use a gradient that is increased each year through out there schooling. That means that data is going to stick, because each year they will get more and more pieces of the puzzle, more significance of what it means to them and their future survival. So I say have several assemblies a year, every year. Starting in elementary school (I think I was in 4th grade when I had my first D.A.R.E. assembly) and all the way up till senior year of high school.

Daniel V. Palmer

Sources

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheese_(recreational_drug)
http://www.cnn.com/2007/US/06/12/cheese.heroin/index.html

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DMT

COMMON & BRAND NAMES

DMT, Dimitri, Divine Moments of Truth, Businessman’s Trip

EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION

Psychedelic Tryptamine

CHEMICAL NAME

N,N-dimethyltryptamine

DESCRIPTION

DMT is a powerful, visual psychedelic which produces short-acting effects when smoked. It is used orally in combination with an MAOI. It is naturally produced in the human brain and by many plants. DMT is a psychoactive chemical in the tryptamine family, which causes intense visuals and strong psychedelic mental effects when smoked, injected, snorted, or when swallowed. When smoked, DMT generally reaches full effects within 10-60 seconds of inhalation. The main effects of DMT last approximately 5-20 minutes when smoked, with a period of 1-2 hours before fully returning to some what normal in most peoples case.

EFFECTS

  • short duration
  • overwhelming fear
  • immersive experiences
  • slight stomach discomfort
  • radical perspective shifting
  • overly-intense experiences
  • hard on the lungs to smoke
  • change in perception of time
  • auditory hallucination (buzzing)
  • powerful “rushing” of sensation
  • difficulty integrating experiences
  • profound life-changing spiritual experiences
  • intense open eye visuals and kaleidoscope patterning
  • color shifting (for example red green and gold coloring to the whole world)
  • fast onset and intensity can lead to problems if not prepared (dropped pipe, knocking things over, falling)

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Ketamine

COMMON & BRAND NAMES

K, Special K, Cat Tranquilizer, Blind Squid, Breakfast Cereal, Cat Valium, Date Rape Drug, Green, Keller, Keller’s Day, Ket, Ketaject, Ketalar, Kit Kat, New Ecstasy, Psychedelic Heroin, Purple, Special la coke, Super Acid, Super-C, Super-K, Vitamin K, Vit K, K-Train

EFFECTS CLASSIFICATION

Dissociative Anaesthetic; Psychedelic

CHEMICAL NAME

2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(methylamino)-cyclohexanone

DESCRIPTION

Ketamine is a dissociative psychedelic used medically as a veterinary and human anesthetic. The user feels its hallucinogenic effects and experiences impaired perception. Ketamine commonly elicits an out-of-body or near-death experience; it can render the user comatose. A well-known effect of Ketamine at higher-range doses is the “K-hole”, where the user is removed from reality and set adrift in an introspective dream-like world, often involving complete dissociation, immersive visuals and out-of-body experiences. At higher doses, the user can be incapacitated and unresponsive, or uncoordinated and erratic, appearing unwell to the uninitiated eye. Nausea and vomiting may also be present. While Ketamine is not known to be physically addictive, prolonged use could be tolerance-building as well as leading to psychological dependency. Ketamine can be injected, snorted and taken oraly; snorting is the most common method of use.

EFFECTS

  • Nausea
  • Rapture
  • Vomiting
  • Euphoria
  • Boredom
  • Slurred speech
  • Increase in energy
  • Analgesia, numbness
  • Increase in heart rate
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Loss of time perception
  • Out-of-body experience
  • Confusion, disorientation
  • Sense of calm and serenity
  • Shifts in perception of reality
  • Dissociation of mind from body
  • Meaningful spiritual experiences
  • Risk of psychological dependency
  • Pleasant mental and/or body high
  • Nasal discomfort upon insufflation
  • Ataxia (loss of motor coordination)
  • Severe dissociation, depersonalisation
  • Severe confusion, disorganised thinking
  • Open- and closed-eye visuals (common)
  • Paranoia and egocentrism (with regular use)
  • Discomfort, pain or numbness at injection site
  • Distortion or loss of sensory perceptions (common)
  • Frightening or untimely distortion or loss of sensory perception
  • Enhanced sense of connection with the world (beings or objects)
  • “K-hole”; intense mind-body dissociation, out-of-body experiences, highly realistic visuals
  • Susceptibility to accidents (from uncoordination and change in perception of body and time)
  • Depression of heart rate and respiration (risk increases with increased dose or when combined with depressants)

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